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  • [原创]初中英语同义句转换
  • 作者: mengshengli时间: 2018/7/18 18:17:44分类: 教育
  •         同义句转换题是近几年中考及初中三年期间英语的一个常考题型,其出题形式通常是同时给出两个句子,第一句完整,第二句中设有几处空格,要求填入适当的词或词组,使第二句的意思与第一句意思相同。它综合考查学生的语法、词汇、短语或习惯用语和句型结构等知识,要求运用所学的词汇、语法知识和句型结构填写句子,使句子结构完整、逻辑合理、语法知识无误、意思与所给句子相同。通过对近几年的中考英语试题中同义句转换题的分析,我们发现中考英语同义句转换题主要考查以下几个方面: 

    1运用同义词(组)进行转换

    用同义词或同义词组对原句中的某些词或词组进行替换,注意转换后的词或词组的词形变化要与句子其他成分相适应。如:

    1. That day we could see flowers here and there. 

    That day we could see flowers __________.

    答案:everywhere

    解析:everywherehere and there都表示“到处”。

    2. The teacher always takes good care of the children in the school.
    The teacher always______ _____the children well in the school.

    答案:looks after

    解析:take good care oflook afterwell都表示“好好照顾”。

    2运用反义词(组)的否定式进行转换

    即用反义词或词组的否定式表达与原句相同的意思,主要考查学生对反义词(词组)的积累和换位思维的能力。如:

    1. Its clear that this visit is different from last time. 
    It
    s clear that this visit is not the___ ___last time. 

    答案:same as

    解析:be different from意为“与……不同”;the same as意为“与……相同”,其否定式与be different from同义。
    2. I think wealth is less important than health. 
    I ___ think wealth is ___ important than health.

    答案:为dontmore

    解析:less important的意思是“没有(不及)……重要”;more important的意思是“(比)……更重要”,该结构与not连用,则表示“不比……更重要”。
    另外,有的反义词即使不与否定词连用,而只需改变句子结构也可构成同义句。如:

    He lent some money to his friend. 
    He friend ___ some money ___ him.

    答案为borrowedfrom

    解析:borrowfrom...意为“向……借……”;lendto...意为“把……借给……”。两个结构意思相反,但若变换“借出者”与“借入者”的位置,则可转换为同义句。

    3运用不同语态进行转换

    即运用主动语态与被动语态的变化来转换同义词,但此时要特别注意时态、动词一致性。如:
    1. Everyone should give back his library books on time. 
    Library books should____ ____ ____ on time. 

    答案:be given back

    解析:被动句中含有情态动词should,因此助动词用be
    2. It is widely accepted that more people use computers in the world today. 
    It is widely accepted that computers ____ widely ___ in the world today. 

    答案为areused

    解析:computers是复数名词,助动词用are

    4非延续性动词与延续性动词的相互转换

    即非延续性动词与延续性动词进行转换,此时往往会涉及时态的变化。如:

    1. The manager left two hours ago. 

    The manager _____ ____ ____ for two hours. 

    答案:has been away

    解析:leave为非延续性动词,不能与for two hours这样的一段时间连用,而改成be away这样的延续性动词后,则可连用一段时间。

    2. The film began five minutes ago. 
    The film has been _____ _____ five minutes.

    答案:on for

    解析:has been提示时态是现在完成时态,“for 时间段”表示“持续(一段时间)”,常用在含有现在完成时态的句子里。

    3. Mr Li joined the Party twenty years ago.
    Mr Li _____ _____ _____ the Party for twenty years.

    答案:has been in

    解析:短暂动词join,意为“参加、加入(组织,政党)”,不能与延续时间状语连用,与延续性时间状语连用时,将join改成be inbe a member in…。

    5运用不同引语进行转换

    即将直接引语变为间接引语或将间接引语转换成直接引语。此时还要注意相关时态、人称、动词、状语等相应的变化。如:

    1.Ive found my wallet, he said to me.

    He _________ me that he _________ _________ his wallet.

    答案:toldhad found

    解析:此题是将直接引语转换成间接引语。

    2. Did you see her last week? he said. 
    He _______ _______ I had seen her the week _______.

    答案:asked if/ whether, before

    解析:此题是将疑问句的直接引语转换成间接引语。

    6简单句与复合句之间的转换

    即将简单句变成同义的复合句或将复合句变成同义的简单句。如:

    1. We didnt go out for a walk because it was raining. 
    We didn
    t go out for a walk _______ _______ the rain.

    答案:because of

    解析:将原因状语从句because it was raining改为表示原因的介词短语because of the rain

    2. He was so excited that he couldnt go to sleep.

    He was ______ ______ ______ go to sleep.

    答案:too excited to

    解析:将sothat…换成tooto…结构,原句的that从句为结果状语从句,改写句中的不定式仍表结果。
    3. Now I will show you how to do the work. 
    Now I will show you ______ ______ ______ do the work.

    答案:how you can

    解析:即将原句中的“疑问词+不定式”结构转换成宾语从句。
    4. You should put them back after you use them. 
    You should put them back _____ _____ them.

    答案:after using

    解析:即将after引导的状语从句改写为after引导的介词短语。

    7并列句与复合句之间的转换

    即将并列句变成同义的复合句或将复合句变成同义的并列句。如:

    1. Come on, or well miss the early bus. 
     ____ we ____ hurry, we
    ll miss the early bus. 

    案为Ifdont

    解析:if引导条件状语从句。
    2. The man gave us a talk last week. He will give us another talk this week. 
    The man _____ gave us a talk last week _____ _____ us another talk this week. 

    答案为who/ thatwill give

    解析:who/ that gave us a talk last week为定语从句,修饰先行词the man

    8运用关联连词连接或合并句子

    即运用关联连词bothand…,neithernor…,eitheror…,not onlybut also…等将两个简单句合并为一个简单句。此时要注意的是,bothand…连接两个主语时,谓语总是用复数,而neithernor…,eitheror…,not onlybut also…连接两个主语时,谓语动词通常应与靠近的主语保持一致。如:

    1. Tom cant speak Japanese well and Jim cant, either.
    ______ Tom ______ Jim can speak Japanese well. 

    答案:Neithernor

    解析:neithernor…表示“……和……(两者)都不”,刚好与原句的两个否定结构的意思相吻合。

    2. Alice has read the book and Peter has read it, too. 
    ______ Alice ______ Peter have read the book.

    答案:Bothand

    解析:bothand…的意思是“……和……(两者)都”。

    3. This store sells mens shoes, and it also sells mens clothes. 
    This store sells ______ ______ men
    s shoes ______ ______ mens clothes. 
    答案:not onlybut also

    解析:not onlybut also…表示“不仅……而且……”之意。

    9运用某些典型句式或结构进行转换

    这类典型结构如sothat…,tooto…,enough tonotuntil…,so do I 等。如:

    1. Jim wants to go boating and his parents want to go boating, too.
    Jim wants to go boating, and ______ ______ his parents. 

    答案:so do

    解析:句意为“……他的父母也一样(一样想去)”。

    2. John went to bed after he finished his homework. 
    John ______ go to bed ______ he finished his homework.
    答案:didntuntil

    解析:notuntil意为“直到……才”。

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